Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher,
Copyright Year. Medium Consulted. Series Name.
Book by One Author:
Petersen, Christine. Does Everyone Have ADHD?: A Teen's Guide to Diagnosis and
Treatment. New York: Franklin Watts, 2007. Print.
Two or More Books by the Same Author:
Nardo, Don. Ancient Mesopotamia. Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2004. Print. The Greenhaven
---. The Assyrian Empire. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1998. Print. World History Series.
Book by Two Authors:
Spangenburg, Ray and Kit Moser. Onboard the Space Shuttle. New York: Franklin Watts,
Book by Three or more Authors: Only list the first author followed by the phrase et. al. (the
abbreviation is for the Latin phrase which means "and others") in place of the rest of the
Connolly, Sucheta, et. al. Anxiety Disorders. New York: Chelsea House, 2006. Print.
Book with an Editor, No Author:
Wolf, Rachel, ed. Splash 2: Watercolor Breakthroughs. Cincinnati: North Light, 1993. Print.
Book in a Series:
Margulies, Phillip. Down Syndrome. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2007. Print. Genetic
Diseases and Disorders.
Article in a Reference Book (Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)
Notes: Do not cite the editor of a reference book. If the book is arranged alphabetically, you may
omit the volume and page numbers.
Article Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Reference Article." Title of Reference Book.
Edition. Year of Publication. Medium Consulted.
Signed Reference Article:
Shriver, Duward F. "Beryllium." World Book Encyclopedia. 2010 ed. Print.
Picard, Louis A. "Botswana." World Book Student. 2010. Web. 5 Jan. 2010.
Unsigned Reference Article:
"Mesopotamia." The Ancient Near East. 2000. Print.
Since electronic texts are not as stable or fixed as print resources, more bibliographic information must be provided. If all of the requested information is not given, cite whatever information is available. If no publisher is listed, use N.p.
Internet Sources Basic Information:
Name of author or creator, if available. "Title of document." Title of Web Site. Publisher,
Date of copyright or last revision (if not given, use n.d.). Medium of Publication.
Access date. <URL if required, or for own personal reference>.
Internet Source with Author:
Knowlton, Leslie. "Eating Disorders in Males." Psychiatric Times. CMPMedica, 2007.
Web. 14 Feb. 2007.
Gray, Terry A. "Life and Times." Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet. N.p.,
21 Sept. 2009. Web. 7 Oct. 2009.
Internet Source without Author:
"Learning About Cri du Chat Syndrome." National Human Genome Research Institute.
National Human Genome Research Institute, 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Jan. 2010.
"Hillsborough, New Jersey." Map. Google Maps. Google, 6 Jan. 2010. Web. 6 Jan. 2010.
E-Mail Basic Information:
Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Title From Subject Line." Description of Message.
Message Date. Medium.
Wilson, Barbara. "Big6 Research Process." Message to Robin Rowand. 3 Aug. 2003.
Digital Files - Consult the MLA manual for clarification of digital files. (sec. 5.7.18)
Rowand, Robin. Big6 Research Process. 2003. Microsoft Word file.
Delano, Jack. At the Vermont State Fair. 1941. Library of Congress, Washington.
Nels Ericson. Addressing the Problem of Juvenile Bullying. Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington: U.S. Department of Justice,
June 2001. PDF file.
Subscription Databases On The Internet
Subscription Databases - Basic Information:
Author. "Article title." Title of Magazine/Journal Publication information. Title of the
Database Used. Medium of publication. Date of Access.
Goodman, Christie L. "Youth and Violence." Christian Social Action June 1993:4-7. SIRS
Researcher. Web. 14 Feb. 2007.
Volti, Rudi. "Mir Space Station." Facts on File Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and
Society. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1999. Science Online. Web. 14 Feb. 2009.
Miscellaneous Print and Nonprint Sources
Pamphlet Basic Information:
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.
Medium of publication.
Ireland. Ann Arbor: CultureGrams, 2009. Print.
Videotape, DVD, Laser Disc Basic Information:
Title. Director. (You may also include here the names of the writer, performers
and producer.) Distributor, Year of Release. Medium.
Videotape, DVD, Laser Disc:
Ancient China. Dir. Ann Carroll. Schlessinger Media, 1998. DVD.
Interviews Basic Information:
Interviewee's Last Name, First Name. Type of Interview. Date of Interview.
Schiano, Greg. Personal Interview. 19 Dec. 2009.
Rowling, J.K. Telephone Interview. 8 Jan. 2010.
For additional information and clarification use, you may use:
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.